Echolalia: imitation of words or phrases made by others.
Verbigeration; repetition of words of phases while unable to articulate the next word in the sentence/senseless repetition of same words or phrases over and over again.
Pressure of Speech: rapid, uninterrupted speech that is increased in amount.
Mutism: inability to speak.
Elective Mutism: refusal to speak in certain circumstances.
Poverty of Speech: restricted amount of speech.
Stuttering (Stammering): frequent repetition or prolongation of a sound or syllable, leading to markedly impaired speech fluency.
Cluttering: dysrhythmic rapid and jerky speech.
Clang Associations (Rhyming): association of word similar in sound but not in meaning (e.g. deep, keep, sleep)
Punning: playing upon words, by using a word of more than one meaning (e.g. ant, aunt)
Word Salad: incoherent mixture of words and phrases.
Dysphasia: impairment in producing or understanding speech.
Dysarthria: difficulty in articulation and speech production.
Sensory Aphasia: nonsensical fluent speech due to lesion affecting Wernicke’s (receptive) area.
Motor Aphasia: impairment in the ability to formulate fluent speech due to lesion affecting Broca’s (motor) area.
Dysphonia: difficulty in voicing speech clearly, due to dysfunction of vocal cords or soft palate.
Circumstanciality: over inclusion of details delaying reaching the desired goal.
Coprolalia: forced vocalization of obscene words or phrases,
Palilalia: is characterized by the repetition of a word or phrase; i.e., the subject continues to repeat a word or phrase after once having said. It is a perseveratory phenomenon.
Alogia: lack of speech output.
Mutism: complete absence of speech.


Psychiatry, Third Edition. Edited by Allan Tasman, Jerald Kay, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Michael B. First and Mario Maj. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
Sims, A. Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology (3rd ed). Elsevier, 2002.
Fish, F. Clinical Psychopathology, Signs and Symptoms in Psychiatry. Bristol: J. Wright & Sons. 1967.


Approximately 250 words