Here is the assignment requirements from professor
There are two aspects to this assignment: 1) identifying faulty arguments in the literature, and 2) Creating faulty arguments to sell your product”
First: You will be re-using your references from your research in Part 1. You will be searching for examples of the faulty arguments and poor reasoning types you studied in the Faulty Arguments PowerPoint.
Introduction: Make sure you write an introductory paragraph to explain what you are doing with citing faulty arguments including an explanation of what constitutes a faulty argument.
Find four different examples of faulty arguments from four different references you used in Part 1. Cite the original source in quotations and state exactly WHY you think the reasoning is poor. All the citations should be about the same plant you studied in Part 1. Label them 1-4 like the example below:
Example: Research by Exegesis: I found passages in the Bible verses urging people to use the holy herb ‘senna’. “Cassia (senna) Exodus 30:23-24 ?The bark ofthis tree from the laurel family is ground to produce a fine spice. The LORD gave Moses a recipefor creating an aromatic oil to be used in anointing the tabernacle and priests.”
See further examples in this Module.
Part 2: Now write a short advertisement for your herb using at least two faulty arguments. Label them in parentheses in red text.
Example: Please try my peppermint tea. It will work wonders for your stomach ache. Everyone I know has tried it (bandwagon) and they are all satisfied. Besides, it is really true that phamacies are too expensive (non sequiter). Even my chemistry professor says it works! (appeal to authority)
Basil is a herb of the aromatic type from the genus Ocimum that is categorized under the mint family (Hiltunen, & Holm, 2003). The herb is of different varieties and the most common is the O.basilicum popular in cooking. This paper explores the common uses of Basil as well as the medical application, exploring the chemical components and impact centers within the human metabolism system.
The most popular use of Basil is in culinary applications. They provide excellent aroma, especially of the Basil Pesto type. When dried up, Basil blends with almost all types of cooking and is experimented upon in many global cultures. The medicinal application works well with calming an irritable stomach. This is the main reason it is used as an ingredient in cooking. Basil handles indigestion and eases the pressure from overeating. The other medicinal value is the soothing of sore throats, coughing and colds. Some traditional cultures chew on the fresh leaves or dry the same and mix with tea. Some cultures and populations use the dry basil leaves during facial steaming process to control headaches. The actual process involves mixing boiling water with a tablespoon of dried basil leaves. The patient then bends over the pot to inhale the steam as well as have the same massage the face as the head is covered by a towel/ cloth to contain the vapour. The patient can hold still for about 5 to 10 minutes until the throbbing begins to decline. Likewise, Basil is an effective stress reliever when mixed with bathing water thus an individual feels relaxed after long bathing stints. Basil is also being investigated for its antibiotic properties based on instances of resistance to antibiotic infections when used especially; Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas (Hiltunen, & Holm, 2003). Based on this antibacterial property, Basil oil treats infections within the ears. The same acts as an anti-inflammatory and pain reliever when an individual is stung or bitten. An individual can simply chew some Basil leaves and apply on the affected area. The Basil juice is able to gradually suck out the venom. Recent studies have indicated the ability for dry basil to contain blood sugar levels as it is consumed through hot beverages (Hiltunen, & Holm, 2003).
Basil is an annual plant with silky light green leaves. The leaves are soft, tender but often provide a creased appearance. The plant can attain heights of up to 24 inches. The plant was originally discovered in the tropics of Africa then later spotted in India before being introduced in Europe (Hengel, 2012). The popular growth is indoors or controlled and warm outdoors alienated from possibilities of frost. The seeds are sowed in light rich soil in the sun but away from cold wind. The plants are often thinned to a gap of 12 inches from one another as soon as they develop a pair of true leaves. The sowing should be made at least every few weeks so as to enjoy constant supply of the young and fresh leaves associated with peak flavor. Small flowers that are white in color emerge at the top of each stalk as soon as the plant gains a height between 12 and 18 inches (Hengel, 2012). The spikes of the flowers must be pinched off to prevent loss of flavor from the leaves.
The basic half a cup measurement of basil chopped leaves worth around 21 grammes will only possess 5 calories thus a healthy food substance. The nutrient composition of the Basil will thus comprise; Vitamins K-98%, Manganese-12%, Copper-9%, Vitamin A- 6%, Vitamin C-5%, Calcium-4%, Folate-4%, iron- 4%, omega-3 fats- 3% and magnesium 3% (Hengel, 2012). The multiple chemical composition is one of the reasons attributed t its high flagrancy. The leaves are pointed and green in color but a variety of shades extend to purple or red pigment thus another indicator of different mineral composition from the one listed above. The number of global varieties of basil exceeds 60 in number, each with a varied taste and appearance. Some other element attributed to this difference is the different soil composition in different geographical areas.
Basil provides healthcare impact through its volatile oils and flavonoids that are the target of medical extraction and application (Acton, 2011). The three broad categories of application in treatment include; Nutrients essentials for cardiovascular health, Anti-inflammatory properties, and DNA protection plus the anti-bacterial effects.
Antibacterial Properties and DNA protection: Flavonoids are associated with the cellular level protection. The specific types of flavonoids involved in the process are Vicenin and Orientin, which are soluble in water. Therefore, a basic preparation of the Basil leave for this value involves crushing the same and mixing with water for instant or future application. Rarely does Basil extracts need additives to impact in human health. As used in studies involving human white blood cells, Vicenin and Orientin strengthened the cell structures thus reinforcing protection against oxygen-based damage and radiation (Mendez-Vilas, 2013). Furthermore, Basil hinders the growth of unwanted growth of bacteria when selectively applied. This resistance to bacterial growth or multiplication is credited to the effects of volatile oils that contain multiple elements including; cineole, estragole, linalool, eugenol, myrcene, limonene, and sabinene (Mendez-Vilas, 2013). The Basil essential oils have been a scientific breakthrough in the healthcare environment that has seen emergence of pathogenic bacteria species that resist contemporary antibiotic drugs. The three categories of bacteria that have proven to resist the common antibiotic drugs include; Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. This discovery emerged from the year 2004 studies indicated a 1% concentrated solution of Basil Oil used to wash foodstuff significantly reduced the quantity of infectious bacteria known as Shigella (Mendez-Vilas, 2013). This is the bacteria involved in triggering diarrhea and has the ability to cause intestinal damage.
Basil volatile oils have the eugenol component that has been a subject of study due to its ability to inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) activity (Acton, 2011). Most anti-inflammatory medications that do not have steroidal tendencies operate the same way, through blocking the activity of the enzyme. Therefore, extraction of the substance from the basil plant from highly technical laboratories provides an anti-inflammatory solution for bites and stings. The ability to suck out venom from bites is still being investigated as it has proven to save lives upon accurate and timely application (Acton, 2011).
Basil is a good source of vitamin A an effective anti-oxidant that protects epithelial cells from extreme damage. Consequently, it helps in prevention of free radicals from cholesterol oxidation within the blood stream (Mendez-Vilas, 2013). Heart attacks or strokes originate when cholesterol has been oxidized thus build on the blood vessel walls leading to formation of atherosclerosis. Basil is an excellent source of magnesium known to initiate relaxation of blood vessels and muscles thus promoting cardiovascular health. The ultimate result is improved flow of blood and reduces the risk of irregular heartbeat (Mendez-Vilas, 2013).
Preparation for Medicinal Use
Basil medicinal components are normally presented as a tincture, dried plant, syrup and capsule. Dried plants are harvested Basil leaves that are exposed to sunlight for a period of time till they lose their humidity. This is a radical approach that saves time for usage but ensures a great loss/ damage of nutrients. The best solution takes time and involves tying the plants or leaves into small bundles that are suspended in properly ventilated dark-room. The restricted lighting is meant to discourage the process of photosynthesis that allows the uprooted plant to consume some of its stored energy. After absolute drying, the leaves are plucked from the stems and stored/ packed in closed containers. However, this ensures a decrease in minerals, especially the vitamins. This method is popular with local application outside the healthcare system. Syrup results from smashing the leaves and extracting the thick liquid content into a container with minimum dilution by external components such as water or alcohol. Capsules are chemical enhanced versions of the drug that are defined through additives that influence reaction or provide complementary treatment. Tincture is a liquid extract similar to the one extracted in the syrup but mixed with water or some alcohol to improve its viscosity and control usage. The alcohol tincture is aimed at extraction and collection of Basil oils.
Safety and Caution
The main concern with the plant is the presence of Safrole a chemical that is capable of causing cancer. Therefore, extreme consumption of Basil could expose an individual to the risk of cancer by a larger margin. The second chemical associated with the plant is estragole that is capable of causing tumors in the mice liver. Therefore, if mice suffer from the tumors, human beings are no exception. Animal metabolism is the same and despite slight adaptive variations, most biological reactions are bound to yield the same results upon being exposed to a certain stimuli or chemical element. Despite the highlighted threats, the FDA as well as other scientific organization classifies Basil as a ?Safe Food?. However, the German health regulators never overlooked the carcinogenic effect thus disapprove its usage in medicinal concentrations (Acton, 2011). The same authorities warn and restrict usage of toddlers, pregnant, toddlers and nursing women. Apart from Germany, many cultures across the world believe Basil promotes menstruation and induces labor in pregnant women.
Basil like all natural plants should be considered safe for consumption. The cancer effect may not yield directly from the plant but from the nutrients drawn from the soil as the plant grows. Therefore, if Basil?s excellent medical and nutritious capabilities are overlooked then a lot more plants should be rejected and declared unfit for consumption. The advantage of Basil is the minimum or non-existent chemical change in its components as adopted for medical use. There is no literature that indicates possible side effects of the drug thus informally qualifying the drug in consumption safety. The simple conversion processes and non-existent cases of overdose based on Basil?s natural tendencies is a pointer towards future medical opportunities. There might be additional values of the plant yet to be recognized. During the evaluation of Basil, minimum usage was attached to the roots, stems and flowers. There is an opportunity to explore possible alternatives that would guarantee 100% consumption of the plant. There are more than 60 variation of the plant thus it is important to explore the advantages of all the different versions to determine additional advantages. Basil provides a sound ground to evaluate, develop and progress the use of herbal medicine. Some cultures such as the Chinese have advanced application of plants in their natural form dating back into centuries. This should provide stable frameworks to enhance herbal research and application.
Acton, Q. (2011). Ischemia: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. New Jersey: ScholarlyEditions.
Hengel, K. (2012). Cool Basil from garden to table: how to plant, grow, and prepare basil. Minneapolis, Minn.: ABDO.
Hiltunen, R., & Holm, Y. (2003). Basil: The Genus Ocimum; Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles. NY: CRC Press.
Mendez-Vilas, A. (2013). Worldwide research efforts in the fighting against microbial pathogens : from basic research to technological developments. Formatex; Boca Raton: BrownWalker Press, cop.