What factors make it difficult to determine the unemployment rate?

QUESTIONS ARE AT THE END!!!! THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION SEPTEMBER 2015 Total nonfarm payroll em Show more QUESTIONS ARE AT THE END!!!! THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION SEPTEMBER 2015 Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 142000 in September and the unemployment rate was unchanged at 5.1 percent the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains occurred in health care and information while mining employment fell. Household Survey Data In September the unemployment rate held at 5.1 percent and the number of unemployed persons (7.9 million) changed little. Over the year the unemployment rate and the number of unemployed persons were down by 0.8 percentage point and 1.3 million respectively. (See table A-1.) Among the major worker groups the unemployment rates for adult men (4.7 percent) adult women (4.6 percent) teenagers (16.3 percent) whites (4.4 percent) blacks (9.2 percent) Asians (3.6 percent) and Hispanics (6.4 percent) showed little or no change in September. (See tables A-1 A-2 and A-3.) The number of persons unemployed for less than 5 weeks increased by 268000 to 2.4 million in September partially offsetting a decline in August. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little changed at 2.1 million in September and accounted for 26.6 percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.) The civilian labor force participation rate declined to 62.4 percent in September; the rate had been 62.6 percent for the prior 3 months. The employment-population ratio edged down to 59.2 percent in September after showing little movement for the first 8 months of the year. (See table A-1.) The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as involuntary part-time workers) declined by 447000 to 6.0 million in September. These individuals who would have preferred full-time employment were working part time because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job. Over the past 12 months the number of persons employed part time for economic reasons declined by 1.0 million. (See table A-8.) In September 1.9 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force down by 305000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.) Among the marginally attached there were 635000 discouraged workers in September little changed from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.3 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in September had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.) Establishment Survey Data Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 142000 in September. Thus far in 2015 job growth has averaged 198000 per month compared with an average monthly gain of 260000 in 2014. In September job gains occurred in health care and information while employment in mining continued to decline. (See table B-1.) Health care added 34000 jobs in September in line with the average increase of 38000 jobs per month over the prior 12 months. Hospitals accounted for 16000 of the jobs gained in September and employment in ambulatory health care services continued to trend up (+13000). Employment in information increased by 12000 in September and has increased by 44000 over the year. Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in September (+31000). Job growth has averaged 45000 per month thus far in 2015 compared with an average monthly gain of 59000 in 2014. In September job gains occurred in computer systems design and related services (+7000) and in legal services (+5000). Retail trade employment trended up in September (+24000) in line with its average monthly gain over the prior 12 months (+27000). In September employment rose in general merchandise stores (+10000) and automobile dealers (+5000). Employment in food services and drinking places continued on an upward trend in September (+21000). Over the year this industry has added 349000 jobs. Employment in mining continued to decline in September (-10000) with losses concentrated in support activities for mining (-7000). Mining employment has declined by 102000 since reaching a peak in December 2014. Employment in other major industries including construction manufacturing wholesale trade transportation and warehousing financial activities and government showed little or no change over the month. The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls declined by 0.1 hour to 34.5 hours in September. The manufacturing workweek decreased by 0.2 hour to 40.6 hours and factory overtime declined by 0.2 hour to 3.1 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1 hour to 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.) In September average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls at $25.09 changed little (-1 cent) following a 9-cent gain in August. Hourly earnings have risen by 2.2 percent over the year. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees were unchanged at $21.08 in September. (See tables B-3 and B-8.) The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for July was revised from +245000 to +223000 and the change for August was revised from +173000 to +136000. With these revisions employment gains in July and August combined were 59000 less than previously reported. Over the past 3 months job gains have averaged 167000 per month. 1. What month (and year) is summarized? What was the unemployment rate for that month? How does that rate compare with the rate in the previous month? 2. What were the unemployment rates for adult women teenagers blacks Hispanics and whites? How did these rates compare with those a month earlier? 3. What factors make it difficult to determine the unemployment rate? 4. Why is unemployment an economic problem? 5. What are the noneconomic effects of unemployment? 6. Who loses from unemployment? Show less

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