What is the Philadelphia chromosome?

1. What is cDNA and why is it better to use cDNA in the process o Show more Chapter 20 Gene cloning (15 pts) 1. What is cDNA and why is it better to use cDNA in the process of gene cloning? (2pts) 2. Explain how the lacZ gene works during the process of gene cloning (2pts) 3. Explain the role of the selectable marker gene in gene cloning (2 pts) 4. A researcher has discovered a gene that makes fireflies glow and would like to clone the gene and put it into a poinsettia plant to make glow in the dark poinsettias. Describe the basic steps involved in cloning the gene. (5 pts) 5. PCR has become a standard technique in diagnosis criminal investigations and paternity testing. What are the basic ingredients of a PCR reaction that enable investigators to amplify a specific fragment of DNA? (give each of their functions) (4pts) Chapter 24 Cancer genetics (25pts) 6. What is an oncogene? How does a proto-oncogene become an oncogene? (2pts) 7. What is the Philadelphia chromosome? Why does this translocation cause leukemia rather than cancer in another tissue? (3pts) 8. Cells have to react upon a wide variety of signals. The term signal transduction describes the overall process how cells convert an extracellular signal into a specific cellular response and includes several intracellular signaling pathways. However there are many common features which are found in most signal transduction pathways. a) Describe the general features of signal transduction. (3pts) Dysregulated signal transduction pathways can have serious consequences for a single cell but also for the whole organism. One example is the ERK MAPK pathway which is linked to cancer: A mutated RAS gene is found in many human cancer types. The resulting RasD protein exhibits one amino acid substitution which impairs the GTPase activity. b) Explain how this mutant RasD protein is cancer-promoting (2pts) 9. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in many countries (5pts) a) Explain briefly principle characteristics of cancer cells as compared to normal cells b) The protein p53 is mutated or inactivated in a large fraction of human tumours. Outline the mechanisms of action of p53. 10. Can viruses cause cancer? If yes how? (2pts) 11. Name 3 ways tumor suppressor genes can be silenced (3pts) 12. Give other examples of tumor suppressing genes (2pts) 13. Why do severely DNA-damaged cells undergo apoptosis? What is the consequence to the animal if they dont? (3pts) Show less

QUICK QUOTE

Approximately 250 words